By: Maryellen Weimer, PhD. Questions are one of those mainstay teaching strategies used to accomplish all kinds of learning goals: questions help an instructor gauge levels of understanding; questions can pique flagging interest; questions lead the way deeper into content and questions challenge thinking. Adult educator Patricia Cranton identifies three kinds of questions especially effective at promoting critical self-reflection and self-knowledge.
Transformative learning theory says that the process of "perspective transformation" has three dimensions: psychological changes in understanding of the selfconvictional revision of belief systemsand behavioral changes in lifestyle. Transformative learning is the expansion of consciousness through the transformation of basic worldview and specific capacities of the self; transformative learning is facilitated through consciously directed processes such as appreciatively accessing and receiving the symbolic contents of the unconscious and critically analyzing underlying premises. Perspective transformation, leading to transformative learning, occurs infrequently.
The ability to reflect critically on one's experience, integrate knowledge gained from experience with knowledge possessed, and take action on insights is considered by some adult educators to be a distinguishing feature of the adult learner Brookfield ; Ecclestone ; Mezirow Critical reflection is the process by which adults identify the assumptions governing their actions, locate the historical and cultural origins of the assumptions, question the meaning of the assumptions, and develop alternative ways of acting Cranton Brookfield adds that part of the critical reflective process is to challenge the prevailing social, political, cultural, or professional ways of acting.
Abstract As the largest adult education institution in America, Cooperative Extension should ground organizational operations in adult education theory. This connection with theory is especially important as Extension systems work towards organizational transformation to create more participatory and democratic learning. Adult education theories of transformative learning and critical reflection from a critical theory perspective are especially pertinent to inform this type of transformation.
Source: Imel, S. Transformative learning in adulthood. A defining condition of being human is that we have to understand the meaning of our experience.
Baumgartner What is adult development? What relevance do adult development theories and models have to the practice of adult basic education? Our philosophy of adult development informs our teaching.
Research concerning service-learning has found that when quality service projects are integrated effectively into the classroom, students benefit. Service-learning practitioners believe that reflection plays an important role in how students make sense of the service experience and the learning outcomes experienced by the students. This paper is interested in further exploring the role of reflection in creating a transformative learning experience.
The theory has two basic kinds of learning: instrumental and communicative learning. Instrumental learning focuses on learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships. Communicative learning involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desires. Meaning structures perspectives and schemes are a major component of the theory.